Preprint / Version 1

Zero mean waveforms for neural stimulation


  • Ian Williams



biphasic, charge balanced, electrode, neural interface, neural stimulation, neuromodulation, safety, triphasic, zero mean


Biphasic charge balanced waveforms do not minimise faradaic processes at the electrode-electrolyte boundary and do not leave electrodes neutral with respect to the tissue. Superior waveforms for electrode health (and consequently tissue safety) exist and may also offer better performance in terms of power consumption and stimulation effectiveness within charge injection limits. This paper aims to provide intuitive insight into the limitations of biphasic waveforms and presents a simple method for assessing how well other waveforms will perform, as well as methods for designing waveforms to theoretically give zero residual voltage and zero net faradaic charge transfer.


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