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HistoEnder: a 3D printer-based histological slide autostainer that retains 3D printer functions




dip-coating, haematoxylin eosin, histoender, histology, pathology, slide autostainer


Automated microscope slide stainers are usually very expensive and unless the laboratory performs heavy histological work it is difficult to justify buying a 2000-10000€ machine. As a result, histology and pathology labs around the world lose thousands of working hours for following procedures that could be easily automated. Herein, we propose a simple modification of an open-source 3D printer, the Creality Ender-3, into an automated microscope slide autostainer, the HistoEnder. The HistoEnder is cheap (less than 200€), modular, and easy to set up, with only two 3D-printed parts needed. Additionally, the 3D printer retains its full functionality, and it can be reverted back into 3D printing in less than 1 minute. The g-code associated with the procedure is extremely simple, and can be written by anyone. The HistoEnder can also be used in chemistry and material science laboratories for automating surface modifications and dip coating.


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