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Allocating Reserves in Active Distribution Systems for Tertiary Frequency Regulation


  • Mukesh Gautam University of Nevada, Reno
  • Mohammad MansourLakouraj University of Nevada, Reno
  • Narayan Bhusal University of Nevada, Reno
  • Mohammed Ben-Idris University of Nevada, Reno
  • Hanif Livani University of Nevada, Reno



cooperative game thoery, cooperative game, distributed energy resources, Shapley values, tertiary frequency regulation, active distribution systems


This paper proposes a cooperative game theorybased approach for reserve optimization to enable distributed energy resources (DERs) participate in tertiary frequency regulation. Tertiary frequency regulation schemes ensure that reserve requirements of primary and secondary frequency regulation are fulfilled with a minimum cost. While the available reserve from a single distribution system may not suffice tertiary frequency regulation, stacked reserve from several distribution systems can enable them participate in tertiary frequency regulation at scale. In this paper, a two-stage strategy is proposed to effectively and precisely allocate spinning reserve requirement from each DER in distribution systems. In the first stage, two types of characteristic functions are computed: worthiness index (WI) and power loss reduction (PLR). In the second stage, the equivalent Shapley values are computed based on the characteristic functions, which are used to determine distribution factors for reserve allocation among DERs. The effectiveness of the proposed method for allocating reserves among DERs is demonstrated through several case studies on modified versions of the IEEE 13-node and 33- node distribution systems.


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