Preprint has been published in a journal as an article
DOI of the published article
Preprint / Version 1

A Cooperative Game Theory-based Secondary Frequency Regulation in Distribution Systems


  • Mukesh Gautam University of Nevada, Reno
  • Narayan Bhusal University of Nevada, Reno
  • Mohammed Ben-Idris University of Nevada, Reno
  • Hanif Livani University of Nevada, Reno



cooperative game, cooperative game theory, distributed energy resources, frequency regulation, Shapley value, active distribution system


Participation of distribution systems in frequency regulation has become an important factor for grid operation after the integration of distributed energy resources (DERs). While available reserves from a single distribution system may not be sufficient for frequency regulation, aggregated reserves from several distribution systems can provide frequency regulation at grid-scale. This paper proposes a cooperative game theory-based approach for secondary frequency regulation in distribution systems consisting of distributed energy resources (DERs). A twostage strategy is proposed to effectively and precisely determine a change in active power set points of DERs following a command from system operators. In the first stage, the value or worth of each DER and their coalitions are determined using initial rates of change of frequency (ROCOF) for each DER/coalition. In the second stage, the Shapley value, one of the solution concepts of cooperative game theory, is used to determine changes in active power set points of DERs. The proposed method is implemented on several distribution systems including a modified IEEE 13- node system and modified 33-node distribution system.


Download data is not yet available.