Preprint / Version 2

Strategic Partnerships and Green Innovations

A Roadmap for Sustainable Co-Value Investment Mixed-Income Housing in South Africa


  • Prisca Simbanegavi University of Witwatersrand
  • Malcolm Weaich University of Witwatersrand
  • Kolawole Ijasan University of Witwatersrand
  • Divine Kwaku Ahadzie Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology
  • Yewande Adewunmi University of Witwatersrand



Affordability, Asset Management, Community Integration, Economic Viability, Environmental Sustainability, Equitable Urban Investment Theory (EUIT), Governance, Green Building, Housing Policy, Inclusionary Housing Policy (IHP), Investment Theory, Mixed Income Housing (MIH), NIMBYism, Policy Implementation, Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), Real Estate Development, Social Equity, Sustainable Development, Urban Planning, Urban Regeneration


Abstract: In the face of mounting pressures to achieve sustainable human settlements, this study explores the intricacies of constructing inclusive housing in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 11, focusing on South Africa as a case study. Employing investment theory as a foundation, the research meticulously derives guidelines for developing sustainable Mixed Income Housing (MIH) through a thematic analysis of interviews. The study highlights South Africa's preference for segregating housing by income levels, utilising physical demarcations and security measures to address crime concerns. It underscores the efficacy of public-private partnerships in housing development, emphasising the necessity for government and municipal provision of land and infrastructure to mitigate service costs. This collaborative model is posited as a means to alleviate poverty through construction jobs and the promotion of Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), with vocational training playing a pivotal role in job creation. The analysis points to the critical need for investors to fully leverage government subsidies towards creating affordable housing units, cautioning against the imbalance of investment returns that disenfranchises governmental social objectives. The paper advocates for the development of Greenfield sites using green technologies and enhanced infrastructure to forge sustainable, inclusive urban spaces that bridge income and racial divides, presenting a model for sustainable urban development that marries economic viability with social equity.

Theoretical Contextualisation Statement: This research on Mixed Income Housing (MIH) through the lens of the Equitable Urban Investment Theory (EUIT) offers a comprehensive examination aligned with the aims of the Journal of World Development. It explores the intricate dynamics of urban development, focusing on sustainable MIH as a mechanism to mitigate issues like poverty, housing insufficiency, and social inequality—core concerns of world development. The study is situated within the broader discourse of global development challenges, emphasising the role of MIH in improving living standards by fostering inclusive, sustainable urban environments. It addresses critical development issues such as environmental degradation, inadequate shelter, and social disparities by proposing a multidimensional framework that integrates economic viability with social equity and environmental sustainability. By applying the EUIT, a theory the paper develops, the research provides a novel perspective on public-private partnerships and government roles in enhancing housing markets, crucial for promoting equitable growth and participatory economic and political life. This aligns with the journal’s focus on disseminating ideas that enhance the human condition and learning from varied international experiences. The paper contributes constructively to global dialogues on development, offering lessons from the South African context that are applicable to diverse nations and societies, thus embodying the journal’s mission of fostering global cooperation and understanding through academic and practical insights into development processes.


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Author Biographies

Prisca Simbanegavi, University of Witwatersrand

Prisca Simbanegavi, PhD

Senior Lecturer

School of Construction Economics and Management, University of Witwatersrand,

University of Witwatersrand

Research focus: Real estate, urban economics & the built environment.


Dr. Prisca Simbanegavi is a distinguished Specialist Researcher and Advisor in real estate and the built environment at large. Her academic credentials are robust, having earned a PhD in Real Estate in 2019 from the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. She holds  a BSc (Honors) in Economics from University of Zimbabwe, a BCom (Honours) in Financial Analysis and Portfolio Management from University of Cape Town and  a Master of Science in Real Estate Management from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. Dr. Simbanegavi is committed to advancing research in the areas of real estate, urban economics  & the built environment. She prefers to work within the African continent, contributing her extensive expertise in addressing crucial developmental needs of her continent. At University of Witwatersrand, she lectures courses that include urban economics, property management, real estate asset management, real estate finance & real estate market analysis. She is the current Program Coordinator for popular Masters in Real Estate Development and Management at the university. Most students attest to her prolific research supervision skills at masters and PhD student levels.

Malcolm Weaich, University of Witwatersrand

Malcolm Weaich

Malcolm Weaich, PhD/MSc QS (Can), BSc QS (Hons), BTech QS
Sessional Lecturer, School of Construction Economics and Management, University of Witwatersrand
Research focus: Sustainability, Financial Management, Built Environment Feasibility, Construction and Development Economics, Quantity Surveying.

With over 12 years of experience in the construction industry, I am a registered quantity surveyor skilled in providing professional advice on all financial and contractual aspects of built environment projects. As a Project Quantity Surveyor and Feasibility Specialist at Weaich Quantity Surveyors (Pty) Ltd, my role encompasses managing project financial management, supply chain management, tender negotiation, and project change management for a diverse range of clients, architects, engineers, and other service providers. I possess a comprehensive understanding of various construction systems and methods, specialised services and installations, construction materials, plant and labour, as well as numerous forms of contracts and sub-contract agreements used within the industry. Additionally, I serve as a part-time Lecturer at the University of the Witwatersrand, imparting my knowledge and expertise in quantity surveying to students in the Department of Construction Economics and Management. I am currently pursuing an MSc/PhD in Quantity Surveying at the same institution, focusing on sustainable development in urban infrastructure. My passion for excelling in my field is driven by a commitment to become one of the most trusted quantity surveyors in the industry, guided by a strong ethical framework and a deep understanding of all development phases to assess the financial feasibility of projects. Known for my ability to identify cost-saving opportunities, I excel in problem-solving, adapting to change, and acquiring new skills. I also have strong interpersonal and communication skills, enabling me to work effectively both independently and as part of a team at any organisational level.

Kolawole Ijasan, University of Witwatersrand

Associate Professor Kolawole Ijasan is a distinguished research analyst specialising in real estate, the built environment, and research development. He delves into the impacts of individual actions, small businesses, corporate organisations, and government policies on the built environment. His expertise centers on housing market regeneration, capital markets, and valuation methodologies. At a more granular level, he supervises, teaches, and conducts research in areas such as real estate valuation, capital market analysis, real estate corporate finance, Highest and Best Use (HBU) analysis, property and facilities management, and comparative real estate market analysis. Through his comprehensive approach, Professor Ijasan seeks to deepen understanding and foster growth within these pivotal sectors.

Divine Kwaku Ahadzie, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology

Professor Divine Kwaku Ahadzie is a distinguished full professor of construction and human settlements development at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, Ghana. He serves as the Head of the Centre for Settlements Studies and is a former Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Built Environment. Celebrated as the first African to win the prestigious Real Impact Award, his contributions to academia are widely recognised. In 2021, the AD Scientific rankings honored Professor Ahadzie as one of the top 40 researchers at KNUST and among the top 150 in Ghana. His scholarly work has earned him accolades as an outstanding reviewer on two occasions; in 2017 for the International Journal of Project Management (Elsevier) and in 2021 for the Journal of Urban Planning and Development (American Society of Civil Engineers). Additionally, he has served as an academic judge for Emerald Publishing (UK), selecting the best young researcher in the Southeast Asia Region, and participated in the 2022 Global Academic Reputation Survey for Times Higher Education (THE). His academic influence is further acknowledged with his name featured on the landing page of the ASCE library, and in 2008, he was recognised as the 4th most cited author in the International Journal of Project Management, underscoring his significant impact in the field.

Yewande Adewunmi, University of Witwatersrand

Dr. Yewande Adewunmi is a highly qualified estate management professional with a PhD from the University of Lagos, and MSc and BSc degrees from Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. She holds associate membership with the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers and is a registered estate surveyor and valuer. Additionally, Dr. Adewunmi is an active member of both the International Facility Management Association (IFMA) and the South African Facilities Management Association (SAFMA).

Her extensive consulting experience spans facilities management for organisations in Nigeria and the UK. Dr. Adewunmi currently serves as the programme coordinator for Facilities Management in her institution and is recognised as a Y rated NRF researcher. Her research interests are diverse and include Facilities Management, Benchmarking, Sustainability, and Post Occupancy Evaluation, reflecting her commitment to advancing knowledge and practice in these critical areas.



2024-04-26 — Updated on 2024-07-10


Version justification

Language Editing Services Report Paper has been converted from British English to American English. Abstract: Condensed and clarified the abstract to align with the requirements of the Journal of Housing Economics. Incorporated the development of the Equitable Urban Investment Theory (EUIT). Emphasized the critique of traditional investment theory and the integration of social justice and New Urbanism principles. Introduction: Improved clarity and flow of the introduction, while enhancing readability. The Problem Statement: Clarified the challenges associated with achieving sustainable MIH developments. Improved sentence structure and readability. The Aim of the Study: Enhanced clarity and coherence. Maintained original citations while improving readability. The Main Research Question: Rephrased for clarity and conciseness. The Research Sub-Questions: Improved readability and coherence. Ensured consistent formatting and clarity. The Research Objectives: Enhanced clarity and readability ensuring consistent formatting. The Research Assumptions: Improved clarity and flow, while ensuring coherence. The Research Hypotheses: Clarified and enhanced readability. Ensured consistent formatting. Literature Review: Improved clarity and coherence in the theoretical literature review. Enhanced readability. Proposing Equitable Urban Investment Theory (EUIT) Clarified the description and principles of EUIT. Enhanced readability and coherence. Empirical Literature Review: Improved clarity and coherence in discussing MIH development, economic viability, and social equity. Enhanced readability. Methodology: Improved clarity and flow in the description of the qualitative research methodology and enhanced readability. Analysis of Data: Clarified the use of NVivo and thematic analysis. Enhanced readability and coherence. Findings and Discussion: Improved clarity and coherence in discussing MIH development strategies. Enhanced readability. Conclusion: Improved clarity and coherence in summarizing the study’s strategic guidelines and implications. Confirmed citations while enhancing readability. Recommendations: Clarified and organized recommendations for sustainable MIH development. Enhanced readability and confirmed citations. Acknowledgments: Improved clarity and coherence. Conflicts of Interest, Funding, and Data Availability Statement: Improved clarity and coherence. End of Report.