Preprint / Version 1

Nanobiosensing-Enabled Biorhythm Tracking for Psychiatric Disorders


  • Karin Huizer Parnassia Groep
  • Ivneet Banga University of Texas, Dallas, dept. Bio-Engineering
  • Ruchita Makesh Kumar University of Texas, Dallas, dept. Bio-Engineering
  • Sriram Muthukumar EnLiSense LLC
  • Shalini Prasad University of Texas, Dallas, dept. Bio-Engineering



bio-engineering, psychiatry, biomarkers


This review paper explores the transformative potential of nanobiosensing in biorhythm tracking for psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric diseases, characterized by a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial pathophysiology, pose challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. Common denominators in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases include disruptions in the stress response, sleep-wake cycle, energy metabolism and the immune response: all of these are characterized by a strong biorhythmic regulation (e.g., circadian), leading to dynamic changes in the levels of biomarkers involved. Technological and practical limitations have hindered the analysis of such dynamic processes to date. The integration of nanobiosensors marks a paradigm shift in psychiatric research. These advanced technologies enable multiplex, non-invasive and continuous analysis of biorhythmic biomarkers in real time, overcoming the constraints of conventional approaches. Focusing on the regulation of the stress response, sleep/wake cycle, energy metabolism, and immune response, nanobiosensing allows for a deeper understanding of the heterogeneous and multifactorial pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. Continuous monitoring of biomarkers can provide a foundation for personalized medicine in Psychiatry, and allow for the transition from syndromal diagnostic entities to pathophysiology-based psychiatric diagnoses. This evolution promises enhanced disease tracking, early relapse prediction, and tailored disease management and treatment strategies. As nanobiosensing continues to advance, its integration into biorhythm tracking holds promise not only to unravel the intricate etiology of psychiatric disorders but also for ushering in a new era of precision medicine, ultimately improving the outcomes and quality of life for individuals grappling with these challenging conditions.


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